Dr. Timothy L. Sanz
Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS.



The views expressed in FMSO publications and reports are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official policy or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.


Orginally Published in Low Intensity Conflict & Law Enforcement, vol. 4, no. 2, Autumn 1995


The following list of worldwide locations is seemingly unrelated in any way: Eritrea, Abkhazia, Chiapas, Tatarstan, Corsica, Yemen, Xinjiang, Quebec, Gaucho Pampa, Lombardi, Sri Lanka, Somaliland, Cabinda, Assam, Irian Jaya, Transnistria, Crimea, Hawaii, Scotland, Kashmir, California and Illinois. But what these and other areas all have in common are separatist movements currently operating or being formed within their boundaries, sometimes as full-scale armed insurrections as in Chiapas or Abkhazia, or as peaceful, legally based secessionist movements as in Quebec, Scotland, and Hawaii.
The impetus for seeking autonomy often involves multifarious political, economic, religious, and ethnic factors. The section below titled "Political, Economic, Ethical, and Legal Issues" lists scholarly publications analyzing such complex issues as principles of self-determination, minority freedoms and rights, right of secession, limits of self-determination, issues of international law, problem of new states' viability, difference between secession and self-determination, and U.S. responses to autonomy movements around the world.
This selected bibliography on separatist movements contains citations dating from 1990 through March 1995. They are subdivided by regions of the world except for the section of issues mentioned above and are arranged alphabetically by author under each section.
A new reference source scheduled for publication in 1995, Encyclopedia of Modern Separatist Movements by Stephen Dunn and published by ABC Clio [ISBN 0-87436-752-2], will undoubtedly be a valuable starting place for researchers studying this topic.


Adam, Hussein M., 'Formation and Recognition of New States: Somaliland in Contrast to Eritrea', Review of African Political Economy (March 1994): pp.21-38. [Discusses the liberation movements and politics].

'Afrikanerdom Divided: South Africa', The Economist, 9 Oct. 1993, pp.44-5. [Independence movement of the Afrikaner Volksfront].

Ansprenger, Franz, Suedafrika: Eine Geschichte von Freiheitskaempfen (Mannheim: Bibliographisches Institut & F.A. Brockhaus AG, 1994). [History of liberation movements in South Africa].

Battersby, John, 'Namibian Sovereignty Complete as S. Africa Withdraws from Port', Christian Science Monitor, 1 March 1994, p.7.

Baxter, Sarah, 'Rebirth of a Nation', New Statesman & Society, 6 May 1994, pp.24-25. [Waning of far-right separatist groups].

Boustany, Nora, 'Despite Cease-fire, Yemeni Fighting Heats up After South's Bid to Split Union', Washington Post, 22 May 1994, p.A30.

Bryden, Matt, 'Fierce Independent', Africa Report, (Nov.-Dec. 1994): pp.35-40. [History of the Somali National Movement from 1978 to secession as Somaliland].

Connell, Dan, 'Eritrea: A Revolution in Process', Monthly Review (July-Aug. 1993): pp.1-25. [Government of EPLF].

Keller, Bill, 'White Rightists Vow to Boycott and Defy South African Vote', New York Times, 11 Feb. 1994, p.A1. [Afrikaner Volksfront separatists].

Omaar, Rakiya, 'Somaliland: One Thorn Bush at a Time', Current History (May 1994): pp.232-6. [Independence from Somalia in 1991 not recognized].

Pateman, Roy, 'Eritrea Takes the World Stage', Current History (May 1994): pp.228-31. [Independence in 1993 after Eritrean People's Liberation Front achieved autonomy].

Richburg, Keith B., 'Fall of African Dictatorships Fuels Separatist Feeling', Washington Post, 25 March 1992, p.A1.

'South Africa: Afrikanerdom Divided', The Economist, 9 Oct. 1993, pp.44-5. [South African Afrikaner Volksfront and self-determination].

'UN Plan for Western Sahara is Launched: Military Observers Stationed at 10 Posts', UN Chronicle (Dec. 1991): pp.28-9. [Referendum on independence or integration with Morocco].

Vincent, Thierry, 'Cabinda: L'impossible accord', Jeune Afrique, 24 Feb./2 Mar. 1994, pp.20-2. [Separatist movement in Cabinda].

Voll, Daniel, 'Into the Heart of Whiteness', Esquire (Aug. 1994): pp.76-84. [Interview with South African separatist Eugene Terre Blanche, leader of the Afrikaner Resistance Movement].

'Yemen Truce Collapses', New York Times, 8 June 1994, p.A16. [War against separatist south].

Yemen Accuses Rebels of Defying the U.N.', New York Times, 4 June 1994, p.A3. [Secessionists in the south].


Anderson, John Ward, 'Kashmir's Conflict Explodes Again', Washington Post, 23 Oct. 1993, p.A1. [Indian Army against Muslim separatists].

Baruah, Sanjib, 'The State and Separatist Militancy in Assam', Asian Survey (Oct. 1994): pp.863-77. [Indian government ends rebellion in Assam].

Bowring, Philip and Adam Schwarz, 'Live and Let Live', Far Eastern Economic Review, 11 July 1991, pp.12-13. [Indonesian Foreign Minister Alatas discusses the separatist rebels in Aceh].

'Burmese Army Captures Stronghold of Insurgents', New York Times, 28 Jan. 1995, p.A2. [Capture of Manerplaw, the headquarters of the Karen separatist group].

Chen, Kathy, 'China Faces Dissent as Some Muslims in Xinjiang Push for Separate State', Wall Street Journal, 16 Aug. 1994, P.A8.

Clad, James, 'Terrorism's Toll', Far Eastern Economic Review, 11 Oct. 1990, pp.33-4. [Sikhs in Punjab India]

Crossette, Barbara, 'Defections Deepening Kabul's Isolation', New York Times, 9 April 1992, p.A3. [Establishment of autonomous provinces].

Davis, Anthony, 'Kashmir: War without End?', World Press Review (Feb. 1995): pp.22-4. [Separatist revolt in India].

Delfs, Robert, 'Islamic Call to Arms', Far Eastern Economic Review, 3 May 1990, pp: 10-11. [Islamic separatists in China's Xinjiang Autonomous Region].

de Silva, Manik, 'Ground for Blood', Far Eastern Economic Review, 22 Aug. 1991, p.17. [Sri Lankan troops defeat Tamil separatists].

________, 'Savaged by Tigers', Far Eastern Economic Review, 13 Dec. 1990, pp.22-23. [Separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam].

de Silva, Mervyn, 'War and Peace', Far Eastern Economic Review, 13 Oct. 1994, p.32. [Tamil separatists in Sri Lanka].

Fink, Johann, 'In East Asia, Many Peoples Seek Statehood', Christian Science Monitor, 19 Sept. 1991, p.19.

Fredholm, Michael, Burma: Ethnicity and Insurgency (New York: Praeger, 1993). [Includes historical background and discussion of major groups including the Karen, Pa-O, Karenni, and others].

Hodgin, Deanna, 'A Violent Life between Two Guns', Insight, 20 Aug. 1990, p.27. [Separatist groups fighting for Kashmir independence].

Hussein, Abida Syeda, 'One Side's View: The Search for Stability in Kashmir', Harvard International Review (Fall 1993): pp.38-9.

Gargan, Edward A. 'Afghanistan, Always Riven, is Breaking into Ethnic Parts', New York Times, 17 Jan. 1993, p.1.

'Kashmiri Separatist Leader is Captured by Indian Troops', New York Times, 13 March 1994, p.9. [Javed Ahmmed Mir, leader of the Jammu-Kashmir Liberation Front].

Lintner, Bertil, 'Loss and Exile', Far Eastern Economic Review, 16 Feb. 1995, p.23. [Karen rebels retreat into mountains or to Thailand].

Manchanda, Rita, 'Loss of Confidence', Far Eastern Economic Review, 3 Sept. 1992, pp.22-3. [Growing separatist movements in the Indian states of Kashmir and Jammu].

'Manila Signs a Truce Accord with the Muslim Guerrillas,' New York Times, 31 Jan. 1994, p.A2. [Cease-fire agreement with Muslim separatists].

Manogaran, Chelvadurai and Bryan Pfaffenberger, eds., The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity (Boulder, CO.: Westview, 1994). [Covers the history of the conflict, especially the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, separatism, and secession].

McBeth, John, 'Clans in Conflict', Far Eastern Economic Review, 6 Sept. 1990, pp.27-30. [Muslim separatist sentiment in Mindanao and the Moro National Liberation Front in the Philippines].

McDonald, H. 'The Ravaged Valley: Kashmiri Separatist Challenge to New Delhi Deepens', Far Eastern Economic Review, 20 June 1991, pp.8-9.

'Philippines: Tired of Revolution', The Economist, 30 Oct. 1993, p.38. [Negotiations between the Filipino government and the Moro National Liberation Front].

Quinn, M. J., Philippine Insurgencies and the U.S. Response (Newport, RI: Naval War College, 1991). [Discusses the communist insurgency since 1968 and the Moslem separatist movement].

Osmaston, Henry, 'The Kashmir Problem', Geographical, (June 1990), pp.16-21. [Vague borders in Kashmir and the separatist movement].

Sarkar, Jayanta, 'Tribal Trouble', Far Eastern Economic Review, 1 Sept. 1994, p.26. [Bodo tribal insurgency in India].

Schwarz, Adam, 'Deadly Suspicion', Far Eastern Economic Review, 25 July 1991, pp.18-20. [Indonesian military's campaign against separatist rebels in Aceh province].

________, 'Eastern Reproach', Far Eastern Economic Review, 11 July 1991, pp.23-25. [Separatist movement in Indonesia's Irian Jaya region].

Shastri, Amita, 'The Material Basis for Separatism: The Tamil Eelam Movement in Sri Lanka', Journal of Asian Studies (Feb. 1990): pp.56-77.

Shenon, Philip, 'Gangs Terrorizing East Timor Seen as Effort to Quell Dissent', New York Times, 26 Feb. 1995, p.10. [Alleged attempt by Indonesian army to crush separatist movement].

________, 'Seven Cambodian Provinces Announce Secession', New York Times, 13 June 1993, p.6.

Sisson, Richard and Munira Majmundar, 'India in 1990: Political Polarization', Asian Survey (Feb. 1991): pp.103-112. [Discussion of separatist movements].

'Sri Lankan Rebels Agree to Truce, Negotiators Say', New York Times, 4 Jan. 1995, p.A2. [Tamil rebels].

Stahl, Max, 'Timor-Oriental, defaite politique pour Djakarta: Une armee contre un peuple insoumis', Monde diplomatique (April 1994): p.26. [Ideology of the Revolutionary Front for the Independence of East Timor and its commanders].

'Taiwan Issue Seriously Concerned', Beijing Review, 28 Oct. 1991, p.10. [China's concern over the separatist activities of the Taiwan Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)].

Tasker, Rodney and Michael Vatikiotis, 'Thailand: Troubled Frontier', Far Eastern Economic Review, 16 Sept. 1993, p.12. [Muslim separatists in Thailand's southern regions and possible bases inside Malaysia].

Tasker, Rodney, 'Southern Discomfort', Far Eastern Economic Review, 2 Sept. 1993, pp.20-21. [Muslim separatist violence in Thailand].

Taylor, John G., Indonesia's Forgotten War: The Hidden History of East Timor (London: Zed Books, 1991).

Tefft, Sheila, 'China Looks to Control Separatists in Tibet Through Buddhist Lamas', Christian Science Monitor, 29 March 1993, p.7.

Tiglao, Rigoberto, 'Hidden Strength: Muslim Insurgents Shun Publicity and Grow in Power', Far Eastern Economic Review, 23 Feb. 1995, pp.22-7. [Moro Islamic Liberation Front on the Philippine island of Mindanao].

Trebach, Bradford, 'Muslim Separatists in a Chinese Province', Wall Street Journal, 15 Sept. 1994, p.A15. [Muslims of Xinjiang].

Varshney, Ashutosh, 'Contested Meanings: India's National Identity, Hindu Nationalism, and the Politics of Anxiety', Daedalus (Summer 1993): pp.227-61. [Discusses secular nationalism, Hindu nationalism and separatist nationalism in Kashmir and Punjab].

________, 'India, Pakistan and Kashmir: Antinomies of Nationalism', Asian Survey (Nov. 1991): pp.997-1019.

Whitehead, Andrew, 'Killing Time in Kashmir', New Statesman & Society, 3 Sept. 1993, pp.23-4. [Suppression of separatists].

Yaeger, Carl H, 'Sikh Terrorism in the Struggle for Khalistan', Terrorism (Oct. 1991): pp.221-31.


'L'attrait du separatisme', Politique internationale (Spring 1994): pp.329-37. [Interview with Lucien Bouchard].

Ceaser, James W. 'One Canada--or Two?', World & I (Sept. 1992): pp.136-43. [Debate over secession and the U.S.'s position].

Chipello, Christopher and John Urquhart, 'Parti Quebecois's Slim Margin of Victory in Quebec Election Signals Rocky Times', Wall Street Journal, 14 Sept. 1994, p.A15.

Cruickshank, John, 'Why Canada Probably Won't Fall Apart; Despite Quebec Elections, Separatist Forces are Weaker than They Seem', Christian Science Monitor, 21 Sept. 1994, p.19.

Diemer, Ulli, 'On Self-Determination', Canadian Dimension (Dec. 1994): pp.27-8. [The left's position].

Farnsworth, Clyde H., 'Quebec Chief Vows to Fight for Canada', New York Times, 19 Dec. 1993, p.15. [Leader of Liberal Party in Quebec fights against separatists].

Fost, Dan, 'The New Civil Wars: Secession in the 1990s', American Demographics (March 1992): pp.9-10. [Calls for secession within states such as California and Illinois].

Garcia-Passalacqua, Juan M. 'The Grand Dilemma: Viability and Sovereignty for Puerto Rico', Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (May 1994): pp.151-64.

Gillmore, Don 'Lucien in the Sky with Diatribes', Saturday Night (June 1994): pp.38-44. [Quebec separatist Lucien Bouchard].

Jhappan, Radha, 'Aboriginal Self-Government', The Canadian Forum (Oct. 1992): pp.15-16. [Proposed amendment in the Canadian constitution].

Kowalski, B. J., 'Quebec's Separatists', World Press Review (Nov. 1994): p.23. [Parti Quebecois].

Langan, Fred, 'Quebec as a Nation: A Costly Idea', Christian Science Monitor, 2 Oct. 1991, p.7. [Study of economic effects by an economist].

Lesieur, Jean, 'Le Quebec bientot "libre"?' L'express, 13 Jan. 1994, pp.40-8. [Separatist politics].

Mercer, Joye, 'A Fighter of Hawaiian Sovereignty', Chronicle of Higher Education, 16 Nov. 1994, p.A6. [L. K. Kame'eleihiwa's struggle for Hawaiian independence].

'Movement for Sovereignty is Growing in Hawaii', New York Times, 5 June 1994, sec. 1, p.36.

Newman, Peter C. 'The Sheer Foolishness of Quebec Separatists', Maclean's, 23 May 1994, p.35.

Olin, Dirk, 'Haole Go Home', Outside (Aug. 1994): p.21. [Separatist group Ka Lahui].

Pinard, Maurice, 'The Dramatic Reemergence of the Quebec Independence Movement', Journal of International Affairs (Winter 1992): pp.471-97.

Richler, Mordecai, 'O Quebec', The New Yorker, 30 May 1994, pp.50-8. [Discussion of the clout of the Bloc Quebecois].

________, Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! Requiem for a Divided Country (New York: Random House, 1992).

________, 'Inside/Outside', The New Yorker, 23 Sept. 1991, p.40-70. [History and future of Quebec separatism].

Santiago, Esmerelda, 'Island of Lost Causes', New York Times, 14 Nov. 1993, p.E17. [Previous attempts at independence in Puerto Rico].

Simpson, J. 'The Two Canadas', Foreign Policy (Winter 1990/91): pp.71-86.

Steif, William, 'A Kind of Quebec', The Progressive (Oct. 1992): p.31. [Puerto Rico separatism].

Terry, E., 'Trouble in Paradise: Ethnic Movement for Self-rule Gains Momentum', Far Eastern Economic Review, 11 March 1993, pp.32-3. [Hawaii].

Trask, Haunani-Kay, 'Tourist, Stay Home: Native Hawaiians Want Their Land Back', The Progressive (July 1993): pp.32-4. [Separatist group Ka Lahui Hawai'i].

Webster, Norman, 'Parizeau: The Life of the Parti', Maclean's, 4 Apr. 1994, p.64. [Sketch of Parti Quebecois leader Jacques Parizeau].

Wood, Daniel B., 'Hawaii's Search for Sovereignty; In the Aloha State, a Self-determination Movement Gains Strength from Diverse Political Groups', Christian Science Monitor, 17 Oct. 1994, p.9. [Ohana Council declares independence].

United States. House. Committee on Foreign affairs, Self-determination by the People of Puerto Rico: Joint Hearing, October 5, 1993, before the Subcommittees on International Security, International Organizations and Human Rights and Western Hemisphere Affairs (Washington, D.C.: Supt of Documents, 1993; cat. no. Y 4.F 76/1:P 96/2)


Bonner, Raymond, 'In Caucasus, Separatist Struggle is Pursued as Pogrom', New York Times, 5 Feb. 1995, p.3. [Abkhazian separatists against Georgians in the province].

________, 'Separatists in Georgia Look to Russia for Protection', New York Times, 12 June 1994, p.18. [South Ossetia seeking incorporation into the Russian Federation].

________, 'Ethnic War Lacerates Former Soviet Resort Area', New York Times, 8 June 1994, p.A3. [Abkhazian separatists].

Burke, Justin, 'In Siberia, Diamonds Form Rock-hard Base for Autonomy; But Officials in Vast Region Worry about Prospects for Civil War', Christian Science Monitor, 12 Feb. 1993, p.1. [Possible autonomy for Sakha-Yakutia}.

Dale, Catherine, 'Turmoil in Abkhazia: Russian Responses, RFE/RL Research Report, 27 Aug. 1993, pp.48-57.

Daulet, Shafiga, 'Tartarstan's Separate Peace; Chechens Could Learn from the Model of Tatar "Secession"', Christian Science Monitor, 23 Dec. 1993, p.18.

Erlanger, Steven, 'Behind the Bearhug: Chechnya's Case for Freedom', New York Times, 22 Dec. 1994, p.A7.

________, 'Heirs of the Golden Horde Reclaim a Tatar Culture', New York Times, 13 Aug. 1993, p.A3. [Secession movement in Tatarstan, Russia].

Fedarko, Kevin, 'Siege of Sukhumi', Time, 4 Oct. 1993, pp: 48-53. [Abkhazian separatists].

'Georgia Seeks Russian Help against Rebels', New York Times, 10 Feb. 1994, p.A5. [To combat separatists in Abkhazia].

Goldberg, Carey, 'Chechen War Raises Fear of New Instability', Los Angeles Times, 24 Dec. 1994, p.A1. [Possible similar movements throughout the Russian Federation].

________, 'Russian Republics: Heading for a Slow Spinoff?' Los Angeles Times, 19 April 1993, p.A24.

________, 'Tatars Defy Yeltsin, Vote on Self-rule, Los Angeles Times, 22 March 1992, p.A1. [Tatarstan].

Gray, Malcolm, 'Moldova's Dirty War', Maclean's, 27 July 1992, pp.20-1. [The war in Bendery Moldova between Moldovan forces and Slav separatists].

Ignatius, Adi, 'Former Yeltsin Aide Believes Russia May be Heading toward Disintegration', Wall Street Journal, 9 June 1993, p.A10(W), A9(E). [Yuriy Skokov, former national security adviser].

King, Charles, 'Eurasia Letter: Moldova with a Russian Face', Foreign Policy (Winter 1994): pp.106-120. [Succession of Transnistria from Moldova].

Mycio, Mary, 'Crimea OK's Constitution Declaring its Independence from Ukraine', Los Angeles Times, 21 May 1994, p.A8.

Pain, Emil, 'Yeltsin Aides See Separatism Fading in Russia', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 46/23, 6 July 1994, p.9.

Peju, Marcel, 'Apres l'URSS, la Russie craque', Jeune Afrique, 5-11 Aug. 1993, pp.34-6. [Surveys separatist movements within the republics and autonomous regions]. Pstrukhina, Yelena, 'Regionalism in Russia--Prelude to Separatism?', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 45/9, 31 March 1993, p.11.

Radu, Michael, 'Moldova: The Next Ethnic Powder Keg?', World & I (July 1992): pp.144-9. [Secessionist region on the left bank].

Rotar, Igor, 'Crimea: Fate of Abkhazia, Dnestr Area is no Guide', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press, 46/11, 13 April 1994, pp.9-10.

Rupert, James, 'Russian Regions Seek Autonomy: Rich Pacific Territory is Latest to Claim Control of its Resources', Washington Post, 9 July 1993, p.A14. [Pacific Maritime Territory].

'Russia's Far East: A World Away', The Economist, 11 Sept. 1993, p.54. [Signs of separatist movement].

'Separatist Winning Crimea Presidency', New York Times, 31 Jan. 1994, p.A8. [Yuriy Meshkov].

Shapiro, Margaret, 'Tatarstan Votes for Self-rule, Repudiating Russia and Yeltsin', Washington Post, 23 March 1992, p.A11.

Sloane, Wendy, 'Russia's Bashkir Republic Pushes for its Autonomy; Local leaders Express Anger as Yeltsin Constitution Reneges on Rights', Christian Science Monitor, 26 Oct. 1993, p.6.

Solchanyk, Roman, 'The Crimean Imbroglio: Kiev and Simferopol', RFE/RL Research Report, 21 Aug. 1992, pp.13-16. [Crimean separatist movement].

Stanley, Alessandra, '24,000 Dead in Chechnya, Rights Group Tells Yeltsin', New York Times, 22 Feb. 1995, p.A8.

Teague, Elizabeth, 'Russia and Tatarstan Sign Power-sharing Treaty', RFE/RL Research Report, 8 April 1994, pp.19-27. [Gives Tatarstan more privileges but does not recognize its sovereignty].

Todres, Vladimir, 'Division: So Far, Bashkiria is Pleased with the Sovereignty it has Achieved', Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press 47/6, 8 March 1995, p.8. [Russian republic of Bashkiria].

'Ukraine Moves to Oust Leader of Separatists', New York Times, 19 march 1995, p.9. [Yuriy Meshkov]

'A World Away', The Economist, 11 Sept. 1993, p.54. [Autonomy movements in Russia's Far East].


Avebury, Eric, 'Self-determination and International Law: The Kurdish Case', International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7/1-2 (1994): pp.7-17. [Provides historical perspectives and UN and CSCE positions].

Barraclough, Colin, 'The Kurds: A Fire in Turkey's Underbelly', Insight on the News, 25 Oct. 1993, pp.6-11.

Bolukbasi, Suha, 'Ankara, Damascus, Baghdad and the Regionalization of Turkey's Kurdish Secessionism', Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies (Summer 1991): pp.15-36.

Brown, Chris, ed. Political Restructuring in Europe: Ethical Perspectives (London; New York: Routledge, 1994). [Secession and self-determination in Eastern Europe].

Button, Stephen H., 'Turkey Struggles with Kurdish Separatism', Military Review (Dec. 1994/Jan.-Feb. 1995): pp.70-83.

Darnton, John, 'Rights Violations in Turkey Said to Rise', New York Times, 6 March 1995, p.A8. [Against Kurdish separatists].

Gunter, Michael, 'Foreign Influences on the Kurdish Insurgency in Iraq', Orient (March 1993): pp.105-19. [Deals with US involvement].

________, 'The Kurdish Insurgency in Turkey', Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies (Summer 1990): pp.57-81.

Ionescu, Dan, 'Romanian Concern over the Conflict in Moldova, RFE/RL Research Report, 1 May 1992, pp.46-51.

Landay, Jonathan S. 'Montenegrins Sing Hymns of Secession', Christian Science Monitor, 9 Nov. 1993, p.7. [From Serbia].

Marcus, Aliza, 'Turkey's Kurds Fight on Alone', Nation, 3 Jan. 1994, pp.8-10.

Moran, C. J., Kurdish Problem--Federalism or an Emerging State (Carlisle Barracks, PA: Army War College, 1993). [Discusses the de facto autonomy of Iraqi Kurdistan].

Smyth, Gareth, 'War without End', New Statesman & Society, 1 Apr. 1994, pp.14-15. [Conflict between Turkish government and Kurdish separatists].

Tsielepis, Toumazos, 'The People's Right to Self-determination and its Application to Cyprus', Cyprus Review (Spring 1993): pp.46-55.

'Turkey and the Kurds: Ethnic Cleansing', The Economist, 17 Dec. 1994, pp.52-3.

'Turkey's Kurds: Scorched Earth', The Economist, 11 June 1994, pp.47-48.


Blount, Jeb, 'Some Southern Brazilians Want Out', Christian Science Monitor, 9 Feb. 1993, p.6. [Formation of the Federal Republic of the Gaucho Pampa].

Brooke, James, 'White Flight in Brazil? Secession Caldron Boils', New York Times, 12 May 1993, p.A6. [Separatist leader Irton Marx and possible secession of the three southernmost states to form the Republic of the Pampas].

Castello Branco, Carlos, 'A federacao tambem ameacada pela crise do estado brasileiro', Jornal do Brasil, 27 Dec. 1992, p.2.

Guillermoprieto, Alma, 'The Unmasking', New Yorker, 13 March 1995, pp.40-7. [Mexican president's expose and denouncement of Zapatistas' leader Marcos].

LaFranchi, Howard, '"Autonomy" is the Buzzword for Mexico's Southern States', Christian Science Monitor, 23 Nov. 1994, p.8. [Chiapas region].

Premdas, Ralph R. and Hugh Williams, 'Tobago: The Quest for Self-Determination in the Caribbean', Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism 19/1-2 (1992): pp.117-27.

Zogby, Emilio, 'Separatsimo a la colombiana entra por San Andres, isla', Espectador, 15 Septembre 1991, p.12A.


'Arafat Names Members of Autonomy Council', Middle East Reporter, 14 May 1994, p.72.

Baram, A. 'Territorial Nationalism in the Middle East', Middle East Studies (Oct. 1990): pp.425-48.

Blumenfeld, Laura, 'First Steps to Freedom', Washington Post, 5 July 1994, p.C1. [End of occupation in Jericho, Gaza Strip and West Bank].

Ford, Peter, 'How Much Palestinian Self-rule Allowed under Autonomy Accord?' Christian Science Monitor, 20 May 1994, p.7.

Ghabra, Shafeeq, 'National Independence in the Arab World: The Case of the Palestinians', Journal of Arab Affairs (Spring 1992): pp.68-90.

Hoffman, David, 'Israelis Reconciling to Palestinian State', Washington Post, 17 July 1994, p.A1.

Loftian, Saideh, 'Human Rights and the Challenge of Ethnic Separatist Movements in the Middle East', Iranian Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 1994): pp.91-118. [Discusses the Palestinian and Kurdish movements].

Nelan, Bruce W., 'From Rebels to Rulers', Time, 13 Dec. 1993, pp.48-9. [Beginning of PLO self-rule in the Gaza strip and Jericho].

'Palestinians: Autonomy: The Hopes and the Fears', Middle East Reporter, 18 June 1994, pp.9-11.

Wing, Adrien Katherine, 'The Intifada: The Emergence of Embryonic Legal Mechanisms for Palestinian Self-Determination', Arab Studies Quarterly (Fall 1993): pp.63-82.


Alksnis, V. 'Suffering from Self-determination', Foreign Policy (Fall 1991): pp.61-71.

Anaya, S. J., 'The Capacity of International Law to Advance Ethnic or Nationality Rights Claims', Human Rights Quarterly (Aug. 1991): pp.403-11.

Barkin, J. Samuel and Bruce Cronin, 'The State and the Nation: Changing Norms and the Rules of Sovereignty in International Relations', International Organization (Winter 1994): pp.107-30. [Discusses the conflict between state sovereignty and national sovereignty].

Beichman, Arnold, 'Some Hatreds Seem to Defy All Efforts at Peacekeeping', Insight on the News, 22 Aug. 1994, pp.37-8. [Philosophical problem between the right to self-determination and legal recognition].

Bookman, Milica Zarkovic, The Economics of Secession (New York: St. Martin's, 1992). [Studies 30 contemporary secessionist movements].

Brown, Chris, ed., Political Restructuring in Europe: Ethical Perspectives (London; New York: Routledge, 1994). [Examines the right of secession and self-determination in Eastern Europe with historical and legal overviews].

Buchanan, Allen, Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce from Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec (Boulder, CO.: Westview, 1991).

Buchanan, A., 'Self-determination and the Right to Secede', Journal of International Affairs (Winter 1992): pp.347-65.

Christie, C. J., 'Partition, Separatism and National Identity: A Reassessment', The Political Quarterly, (Jan./March 1992): pp.68-78.

Church, George J., "Splinter, Splinter Little State', Time, 6 July 1992, pp.36-9. [Consequences of various autonomy movements].

Cohen, Stephen P, 'U.S. Security in a Separatist Season', Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (July 1992): pp.28-32. [Worldwide implications of the breakup of multi-ethnic states].

Crossette, Barbara, 'What is a Nation?: Chechnya Case Revives U.N. Debate about Sovereignty and Minorities', New York Times, 26 Dec. 1994, p.A5. [Examines U.N.'s response to the limits of self-determination].

Cullen, Robert, 'Rights and Foreign Policy: Collective Rights and Nationalism', Current (June 1993): pp.28-32. [Need for a U.S. foreign policy to deal with self-determination].

Cutler, Lloyd N., 'The Dilemma of Secession', Washington Post, 21 July 1991, p.C7. [Question of legal rights to secede from a federal system].

Etzioni, Amitai, 'The Evils of Self-determination', Foreign Policy (Winter 1992): pp.21-35. [Loss of more powerful democratic states and the economic consequences].

'Fourth Committee; The Right to Self-determination: A Speedy Exercise', UN Chronicle (March 1992): p.89. [General Assembly resolution advocating self-determination for all non-self-governing territories].

Franck, T. M., 'The Emerging Right to Democratic Governance', American Journal of International Law (Jan. 1992): pp.46-91.

Gottlieb, Gidon, 'Nations without States', Foreign Affairs (May 1994): pp.100-12. [Discusses the Wilsonian principle of self-determination].

Gelb, Leslie H., 'The Curse of Nations', New York Times, 5 July 1992, sec. 4, p.E11. [Problem of minority freedoms].

________, 'The Dark Side of Disunity', New York Times, 10 July 1991, p.A15. [Dangers of self-determination].

Glynn, Patrick, 'The Age of Balkanization', Commentary (July 1993): pp.21-5. [Collapse of global unity].

Goldman, S.E., 'A Right of Intervention Based upon Impaired Sovereignty', World Affairs (Winter 1994): pp.124-9.

Greenfeld, Liah, 'Transcending the Nation's Worth', Daedalus (Summer 1993): pp.47-62. [Reasons for establishing nations].

Grier, Peter, 'Nationalist Trends Threatens World Borders', Christian Science Monitor, 11 May 1994, p.1.

Halperin, Morton and David Scheffer, Self-Determination in the New World Order (Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1992).

Heraclides, Alexis, 'Secession, Self-Determination and Nonintervention: In Quest of a Normative Symbiosis', Journal of International Affairs (Winter 1992): pp.399-420. [Defining a separatist movement].

________, The Self-Determination of Minorities in International Politics (Totowa, N.J.: F. Cass, 1991). [Armed separatist movements in Katanga, Biafra, Sudan, Iraq, Kurdistan, Bangladesh, Moro area, and Eritrea].

________, 'Secessionist Minorities and External Involvement', International Organization (Summer 1990): pp.341-78. [Secessionist movements in Katanga, Biafra, Southern Sudan, Bangladesh, Kurdistan, Eritrea, and Moro, Philippines].

Hobsbawm, Eric, 'Whose Fault-Line Is It Anyway?' New Statesman & Society, 24 April 1992, pp.23-6. [Analyzes nationalist separatist movements and violence through Europe].

________, 'Dangerous Exit from a Stormy World', New Statesman and Society, 8 Nov. 1991, pp.16-17. [Problems of autonomy and viability of states].

Horowitz, Donald L. 'Irredentas and Secessions: Adjacent Phenomena, Neglected Connections', International Journal of Comparative Sociology (Jan./April 1992): pp.118-130. [Discussion of transborder groups].

Howe, Marvine, 'U.N. Panel Backs Indigenous Peoples' Rights', New York Times, 15 Oct. 1992, p.A12. [Center for Human Rights].

'Identities, espaces, frontieres', Espaces et societes: Revue scientifique internationale, nos. 70/71 (1993): pp.5-211. [10 articles analyzing autonomy movements in Canada and Europe].

Keane, John, 'Nations, Nationalism and Citizens in Europe', International Social Science Journal (June 1994): pp.169-84. [Discusses the doctrine of self-determination].

Kampelman, Max M., 'Secession and Self-Determination: New States and Old Problems', Current (Nov. 1993): pp.35-9. [Discusses the necessity of distinguishing between these concepts].

Krol, M., 'A Europe of Nations or a Universalistic Europe', International Affairs (April 1990): pp.285-90.

Lapidoth, R., 'Sovereignty in Transition', Journal of International Affairs (Winter 1992): pp.325-46.

Lemarchand, Rene, 'The Siren Song of Self-Determination', UNESCO Courier (June 1993): pp.29-33. [Tactics of groups to achieve autonomy].

Lind, Michael, 'In Defense of Liberal Nationalism', Foreign Affairs (May-June 1994): pp.87-99. [U.S. responses to autonomy movements].

Mayall, James and Mark Simpson, 'Ethnicity is not Enough: Reflections on Protracted Secessionism in the Third World', International Journal of Comparative Sociology (Jan./April 1992): pp.5-25. [Development of separatist movements in the Third World after the end of the Cold War].

Mayall, J. 'Non-intervention, Self-determination and the "New World Order"', International Affairs (July 1991): pp.421-9.

McMullen, Ronald K, 'Ethnic Conflict in Russia: Implications for the United States', Studies in Conflict & Terrorism (July 1993): pp.201-218.
[Political turmoil in central government allowing for non-Russian separatist movements to leave the Russian Federation].

Mikesell, M. W. and A. B. Murphy, 'A Framework for Comparative Study of Minority-group Aspirations', Annals of the Association of American Geographers (Dec. 1991): pp.581-604.

Mitra, Subrata K., 'The Rational Politics of Cultural Nationalism: Subnational Movements of South Asia in Comparative Perspective', British Journal of Political Science (Jan. 1995): pp.57-78. [Analysis of separatist movements trying to assert control over areas of existing national states].

Perlmutter, Amos, 'America's Failed Vision of the World', Insight on the News, 6 Sept. 1993, pp.32-3. [Flawed U.S. policy of advocating national self-determination movements].

Picard, Elizabeth, 'Communities at the Crossroads', UNESCO Courier (June 1993): pp.19-23. [Objectives of armed groups to gain autonomy].

Pocock, G., 'Nation, Community, Devolution, and Sovereignty', The Political Quarterly (July-Sept. 1990): pp.318-27.

Quaye, Christopher O., Liberation Struggles in International Law (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1991).

Reisman, W. M. 'Sovereignty and Human Rights in Contemporary International Law', American Journal of International Law (Oct. 1990): pp.866-76.

'The Right to Self-determination: A Speedy Exercise', UN Chronicle (March 1992): p.89.

Safire, William, 'The Great Reshuffle', New York Times, 1 Feb. 1993, p.A13. [Moral issues].

Safran, W., 'Non-separatist Policies Regarding Ethnic Minorities: Positive Approaches and Ambiguous Consequences', International Political Science Review (Jan. 1994): pp.61-80.

Schlesinger, P. and N. Wood, 'Boundaries and Identities [Symposium], Media, Culture & Society (July 1991): pp.291-413.

Tamir, Y. 'The Right to National Self-determination', Social Research (Fall 1991): pp.565-90.

Tilly, Charles, 'National Self-Determination as a Problem for All of Us', Daedalus (Summer 1993): pp.29-36. [Discusses principles of self determination].

von Hippel, Karin, 'The Resurgence of Nationalism and its International Implications', Washington Quarterly (Autumn 1994): pp.185-200. [Nationalism and self-determination as threats to international order].

Walzer, M., 'The New Tribalism: Notes on a Difficult Problem', Dissent (Spring 1992): pp.164-71.

Weller, Marc, 'Breaking up is Hard to Do', New Statesman & Society, 23 Aug. 1991, pp.18-19. [Mediation with secessionist movements needed].

Wendt, A. 'Anarchy is What States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics', International Organization (Spring 1992): pp.391-425.

'When Countries Splinter', The Economist, 13 June 1992, p.11-12. [Editorial about the economic and political consequences of autonomy movements].


Ascherson, Neal, 'The Scottish Road to Statehood', New Statesman & Society, 20 Dec. 1991, pp.22-4.

Baxter, Sarah, 'No Time for Divide and Rule in Scotland', New Statesman & Society, 15 Nov. 1991, p.20. [Scottish Nationalist Party].

Blackburn, Robin, 'Cracks in the Stately Facade', The Nation, 23 Dec. 1991, pp.810-13. [Autonomy movement in Scotland].

Cornu, Yves, 'Belgique: Le virus separatiste, Le point, 19 Sept. 1992, pp.34-6. [Flemish separatist movement].

Douglas, William A. and Joseba Zulaika, 'On the Interpretation of Terrorist Violence: ETA and the Basque Political Process', Comparative Studies in Society and History (April 1990): pp.238-57.

'For Auld Lang's Syne: Scotland', The Economist, 6 March 1993, p.59. [Proposals to change the constitution].

Gardels, Nathan, 'The Limits of Self-determination', New Perspectives Quarterly (Winter 1992): pp.50-3. [Interview with Prime Minister of Spain Gonzalez concerning Catalonia].

Giarelli, Andrew, 'Separatist Rumbles', World Press Review (May 1994): p.26. [Renewed reports of separatist movements in Catalonia and Basque region of Spain].

Harvie, Christopher, Scotland and Nationalism: Scottish Society and Politics 1707-1994, 2nd ed., (London; New York: Routledge, 1994).

Horwitz, Tony, 'Up in the Pyrenees, Andorra has Become Latest Mouse to Roar', Wall Street Journal, 27 April 1993, p.A1. [To become fully independent].

Jones, Benjamin, 'Basques Fight Back', Europe: Magazine of the European Community (Dec. 1993): pp.42-3. [Basques in Spain defy the armed separatist group Euzkadi ta Askatasuna (ETA)].

________, 'Basque Terrorist Leaders Captured', Europe: Magazine of the European Community (June 1992), p.41. [Arrest of leaders of the armed Basque separatist group ETA].

LaFranchi, Howard, 'Belgium Halts Drive to Separate: Once Taken with Europe's Nationalist Fervor, Belgians Now Seek Unity through a New Charter that Eases Divisions', Christian Science Monitor, 23 Sept. 1993, p.7.

Melloan, George, 'For the Disaffected, Italy's Children's Crusade', Wall Street Journal, 21 March 1994, p.A13. [Forza Italia combines the separatist Northern League and the National Alliance into its coalition to create a Freedom Alliance].

________, 'Not Only East Europe is Coming Unglued', Wall Street Journal, 30 March 1992, p.A17(W), A11(E). [Fragmentation of Western Europe].

Phillips, Andrew and Scott Steele, 'Scotland's Separatist Aims', Maclean's, 16 March 1992, pp.26-8.

'Realta regionali e neoregionalismo', Citta Nuova 8/1-2 (1993): pp.1-58. [Surveys movements for greater autonomy in Sicily, Friuli-Venezia and Sardinia in Italy].

Riding, Alan, 'Basque Peace Hopes Rise as the Separatists Wane', New York Times, 28 Jan. 1994, p.A3. [Waning of power of the Basque separatist movement].

Ruzza, Carlo E. and Oliver Schmidtke, 'Roots of Success of the Lega Lombarda: Mobilisation Dynamics and the Media', West European Politics (Apr. 1993): pp.1-23. [Separatist group of the Lega Nord].

Schmidt, William E., 'With a New Fervor, the Scots Eye Independence', New York Times, 3 March 1992, p.A4.

Steele, Scott, "The Desire to Go it Alone', Maclean's, 16 March 1992, p.28. [Discusses movements in Corsica, France; Lombardi, Italy; Flanders and Wallonia, Belgium; and the Basque region of Spain].

Sturz, James, 'Bossi Boots', New Republic, 15 Feb. 1993, pp.15-16. [Bossi's separatist political movement, the Northern League in Italy].

Tabliabue, John, 'In Italian Election, Brash Words Help', New York Times, 16 March 1994, p.A4. [Separatist Northern League].

Viviano, Frank, The Fall of Rome', Mother Jones (Sept. 1993): pp.36-40. [Lega Nord, northern Italy's separatist movement].

'Wee, but Free, in Europe', The Economist, 22 Feb. 1992, p.44. [Scottish National Party].


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